Wednesday, 27 April 2011

Inflasi di Zimbabwe

Salam, dalam entry yg  lepas aku ada tunjuk makna inflasi. Entry kali ni aku nak tunjuk contoh hyper inflasi di negara Zimbabwe pada Feb 2007 - 2009.

Negara Zimbabwe

Lokasi Zimbabwe di benua Afrika.
Inflasi di Zimbabwe adalah Inflasi Bekalan Wang yang membawa maksud :-

Berlaku apabila bekalan wang meningkat melebihi bekalan barangan atau perkhidmatan dalam pasaran. Inflasi ini biasanya berlaku semasa peperangan. Wang yang banyak dicetak untuk membiayai perbelanjaan peperangan. Wang yang akhirnya menyebabkan inflasi. Oleh itu adalah penting untuk mempastikan peningkatan bekalan wang pada tahap tertentu bersesuaian dengan barangan dan perkhidmatan yang ada di pasaran setiap masa.
Robert Mugabe

4 faktor Hyperinflasi di Zimbabwe

1.     Kerajaan yang tidak stabil pimpinan Robert Mugabe. Rejim Mugabe di percayai melakukan pembunuhan beramai-ramai rakyat yang menentangnya, mengawal media dan rasuah yang berleluasa.

2.  Rusuhan Awam. Rakyat Zimbabwe merusuh kerana kegagalan kerajaan menyediakan peluang ekonomi pada mereka menyebabkan mereka jatuh miskin. Faktor kemiskinan inilah menyebabkan rakyat bangkit dan menentang kerajaan.

3.   Kurangnya disiplin kewangan fiskal. Kerajaan Mugabe mencetak wang begitu banyak bagi membiayai peperangan di negara Congo. Penglibatan perang oleh kerajaan Mugabe memerlukan jutaan dollar sebulan bagi membayar gaji pada tentera dan pegawai kerajaan. Bukan faktor negara Congo menceroboh negara Zimbabwe atau mengancam mereka tetapi bersekongkol dengan Congo memerangi pemberontak yang mengawal lombong-lombong berlian di Congo.

4.   Faktor terakhir yang mengikat semua penyebab di atas  adalah  bahawa  sementara   kerajaan tidak  mempunyai  kestabilan dan d isiplin fiskal dan rakyatnya mengalami perselisihan yang serius menyebabkan persepsi kekuatan matawang itu menurun. Ketika rakyatnya menganggap kerajaan mereka teruk dengan dasar kerajaan yang lemah dan ketidakstabilan,mereka kehilangan kepercayaan pada mata wang.Ia menjadi punca hiperinflasi. Secara keseluruhan, semua peristiwa ini memberikan sumbangan terhadap penurunan persepsi positif dan kenaikan inflasi.

Zimbabwe adalah pemegang rekod inflasi terbesar di dunia iaitu 231.2juta peratus  (231,150,888.87%), parahnya, harga-harga barang melambung begitu cepat dengan hanya dalam beberapa minit sahaja, maka tak hairanlah jika peniaga-peniaga di Zimbabwe begitu sibuk mengganti label harga barangan mereka hampir setiap minit.

Kadar inflasi Zimbabwe (rasmi) sejak merdeka
2004132.75%2005585.84%20061,281.11%200766,212.3%2008231,150,888.87% (July)

Wang pecahan 500 juta dollar Zimbabwe yang baru dicetak pada Mei 2008 ini hanya bernilai sekitar 2 dollar Amerika.
Ambik ko! Nak makan kuew tiaw punya pasal.
Gaji kena susun kat meja. Dalam bank dah penuh.
Kekayaan yang tiada tolok bandingnya.

Malas nak kira? Ha timbang baru senang, dapat la USD1.

Kilang dompet terpaksa gulung tikar. Jualan lori naik mendadak sebab nak bawak duit.
Berat duit lagi daripada ayam.

Sebenarnya hyperinflasi dapat di bendung dengan mengambil langkah-langkah awal oleh kerajaan. Kebiasaannya kerajaan akan menghentikan cetakan wang tp berbeza dengan Zimbabwe, ia telah berlarutan selama 5 tahun. Antara langkah yang patut di ambil adalah 
  1. Menggantung matawang Zimbabwe dan menggunakan matawang negara jiran yang lebih stabil seperti Afrika Selatan.
  2. Menggunakan US Dollar yang di terima seluruh dunia.
  3. Menyertai Special Currencies Zone yang kenali Rand Zone di anggotai Lesotho, Afrika Selatan, Swaziland dan Namibia.
Pengajaran : Wang kertas hanya sehelai kertas biasa yang di beri nilai oleh kerajaan. Ia bila-bila masa boleh runtuh seperti negara Zimbabwe ini dan ketika krisis ekonomi 1997-1998 yang melanda Asia Timur akibat spekulator matawang asing. Alternatif? ya Emas adalah alternatif menggantikan matawang kertas ini. Kerana ia kebal inflasi, komoditi yang di terima seluruh dunia, amat sukar di perolehi. Entry akan datang akan menceritakan kelebihan EMAS pula.
sumber wikipedia, http://idhamlim.blogspot.com


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